In The Literature


The Ethical Recruitment of Internationally Educated Nurses: A Leadership Perspective on Labor Migration
M.J. Garcia-Dia
Nurse Leader
February 2022

Sustain and Retain in 2022 and Beyond: The Global Nursing Workforce and the COVID-19 Pandemic
J. Buchan, H. Catton, and F. Shaffer
International Centre on Nurse Migration
January 2022


The Contributions of Immigrant Nurses in the U.S. During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A CGFNS International Study
F. Shaffer, M. Bakhshi, K. Cook, and T. Álvarez
Nurse Leader
April 2021

Ethical challenges and nursing recruitment during COVID-19
A. Stievano, D. Hamilton, and M. Bakhshi
Nursing Ethics
February 2021


Nurse turnover: Understand it, reduce it
F. A Shaffer, L Curtin
American Nurse Journal
August 2020

State of the World’s Nursing Report
WHO, ICN, & Nursing Now
April 2020

The Recruitment Experience of Foreign-Educated Health Professionals to the United States
F. Shaffer, M. Bakhshi, N. Farrell, Niamh, and T. Álvarez
American Journal of Nursing
February 2020


Policy Brief: Nurse Retention
J. Buchan, F. Shaffer, and H. Catton
International Centre on Nurse Migration


Code for ethical international recruitment practices: the CGFNS alliance case study
F. Shaffer, M. Bakhshi, J.T. Dutka, J. Phillips
Human Resources for Health
June 2016


Alternative Approaches to the Governance of Transnational Labor Recruitment
Patricia Pittman
International Migration Review
February 2015


Source Country Perceptions, Experiences, and Recommendations Regarding Health Workforce Migration: A Case Study From the Philippines
K. Marcus, G. Quimson, and S. Short
Human Resources for Health
October 2014

Forced Labor in the Production of Electronic Goods in Malaysia: A Comprehensive Study of Scope and Characteristics
September 2014

Getting Teacher Migration and Mobility Right
M. Caravatti, S. Lederer, A. Lupico, and N. Van Meter
Education International and American Federation of Teachers
May 2014

The Workforce for Health in a Globalized Context–Global Shortages and International Migration
C. Aluttis, T. Bishaw, and M. Frank
Global Health Action
February 2014

Culture Shock: The Exploitation of J-1 Cultural Exchange Workers
M. Stewart
Southern Poverty Law Center
February 2014

The Role of Internationally Educated Nurses in a Quality, Safe Workforce
G. Sherwood and F. Shaffer
Nursing Outlook
January/February 2014

International Labor Migration: A Vision for Shared Prosperity
The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations


Policy Solutions to Address the Foreign-Educated and Foreign-Born Healthcare Workforce in the U.S.
P. Chen, D. Auerbach, U. Muench, L. Curry, and E. Bradley
Health Affairs
November 2013

The Experiences of Internationally Educated Nurses in the Southeastern United States of America
R. Wheeler, J. Foster, and K. Hepburn
International Nursing Review
September 2013

How Effective is an Ethical International Recruitment Policy? Reflections on a Decade of Experience in England
R. Young
Health Policy
July 2013

The American Dream Up for Sale: A Blueprint for Ending International Labor Recruitment Abuse
The International Labor Recruitment Working Group
February 2013

Taken for a Ride: Migrant Workers in the U.S. Fair and Carnival Industry
American University Washington College of Law and Centro de los Derechos del Migrante, Inc.
February 2013

Close to Slavery: Guest Worker Programs in the United States
Southern Poverty Law Center
February 2013

Recruitment Revealed: Fundamental Flaws in the H-2 Temporary Worker Program and Recommendations for Change
Centro de los Derechos del MIgrante, Inc.
January 2013

Mexican H-2A Farmworkers in the U.S.: The Invisible Workforce
Jornaleros Safe Report/Global Workers Justice Alliance


The U.S. Au Pair Program: Labor Exploitation and the Myth of Cultural Exchange
J. Chuang
Harvard Journal of Law & Gender
August 2012

Visas, Inc: Corporate Control and Policy Incoherence in the U.S. Temporary Foreign Labor System
A. Sukthankar
Global Workers Justice Alliance
May 2012

Immigration and Contract Problems Experienced by Foreign-Educated Nurses (FENs)
P. Pittman, C. Herrera, J. Spetz, and C. Davis
Medical Care Research and Review
February 2012

Gaming the System 2012: Guest Worker Visa Programs and Professional and Technical Workers in the U.S.
J. Dorning and C. Fanning
The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations


Monitoring International Labor Recruitment: A Cross-Visa Exploration of Regulatory Challenges
Centro de los Derechos del Migrante, Inc.
October 2011

No Way to Treat a Guest: Why the H-2A Agricultural Visa Program Fails U.S. and Foreign Workers
E. Newman, B. Goldstein, and A. DerVartanian
Farmworker Justice
September 2011

Guestworker Diplomacy: J Visas Receive Minimal Oversight Despite Significant Implications for the U.S. Labor Market
D. Costa
Economic Policy Institute
July 2011


Picked Apart: The Hidden Struggles of Migrant Worker Women in the Maryland Crab Industry
J. Rathod and A. Lockie
American University Washington College of Law and Centro de los Derechos del Migrante, Inc.
July 2010

U.S.-Based Recruitment of Foreign-Educated Nurses: Implications for an Emerging Industry
P. Pittman, A. Folsom, and E. Bass
American Journal of Nursing
June 2010

Interview with Patricia Pittman, PhD, RN, author of “U.S.-Based Recruitment of Foreign-Educated Nurses: Implications for an Emerging Industry”
American Journal of Nursing
May 2010


Importing Educators: Causes and Consequences of International Teacher Recruitment
American Federation of Teachers
June 2009


Out of Order Out of Time: The State of the Nation’s Health Workforce
Association of Academic Health Centers

The Lancet Special Issue
Vol. 371, No. 9613
February 2008


Facilitating Acculturation of Foreign-Educated
E. Ea
OJIN: Online Journal of Issues in Nursing
Vol. 13, No. 1
November 2007

How A Long Island Nursing Home Empire Got Its Way: Were promises broken?
M. Amon and R. Ochs.
September 2007

International Migration of Nurses
Health Services Research Special Issue
Vol. 42, No.3.2
June 2007

U.S.-based International Nurse Recruitment: Structure and Practices of a Burgeoning Industry
P. Pittman, A. Folsom, E. Bass, and K. Leonhardy
November, 2007


A New Database of Health Professional Emigration from Africa
M. Clemens and G. Patterson
The Center for Global Development
August 2006

The World Health Report 2006 – Working Together for Health
World Health Organization


An Action Plan to Prevent Brain Drain: Building Equitable Health Systems in Africa
E. Friedman
Physicians for Human Rights
June 2004

Human Resources for Health: Overcoming the Crisis
Joint Learning Initiative

Imported Care: Recruiting Foreign Nurses to U.S. Health Care Facilities
B. Brush, et al.
Health Affairs
Vol. 23, No. 3

Migration of Health-Care Workers from Developing Countries: Strategic Approaches to Its Management
B. Stilwell, et al.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Vol. 82

The Migration of Nurses: Trends and Policies
J. Buchan and J. Sochalski
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Vol. 82

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